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Golden Treasure of Ayurveda : “Turmeric”

Category : All, Education, Farming · by Apr 2nd, 2015

Golden Treasure of Ayurveda : “Turmeric” #1

A pinch of Turmeric for wounds, for stomach pain, for allergy, for cold & cough.. this information is inherited by every Indian from their ancestors. And the wonders of turmeric now proved scientifically.

Here is all we want to know about turmeric.

Botanical Name: Curcuma longa Linn. Syn. C. domestica Val.

Family: Zingiberaceae

English Name: Turmeric, Indian Saffron

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Golden Treasure of Ayurveda: Turmeric

Indian name:

  • Hindi- Haldi
  • Assamese: Halodhi
  • Bengali: Halud
  • Gujrati: Halad, Haldar
  • Kannada: Arsthin, Arishina
  • Malayalam: Manjal
  • Marathi: Halad
  • Punjabi: Haldi
  • Sanskrit: Hardira, Marmaru
  • Tamil: Manjal
  • Telugu: Pasupu
  • Urdu: Haldi

Foreign Names:

  • Arabic: Kurkum, Zarsud
  • Burmese: Hsanwen
  • Cambodian: Banley, ROmiet
  • Chinese: Chiang, Huang
  • French: Curcuma
  • German: Kurkuma
  • Italian: Curcuma
  • Persian: Darzardi
  • Spanish: Curcuma

In India turmeric has been used since ancient times on religious occasions as a spice as well as an important ingredient of many Ayurvedic medicines.

Physical Morphology of Turmeric Plant

Turmeric Plant

Physical Morphology:

  • 60-100 cm height with short stem
  • Rhizomes are short, thick, ovoid, cylindrical, light yellow in color.
  • Leaves are tufted, 1-1.5m, petiole as long as blade, peduncle & found covered with sheathing petiole
  • Flowers are dense, compound with enlarged and plae-green bracts
  • Spikes are 10-12 cm long and 5 cm in diameter.
  • Calyz is short and cylindrical
  • Sepals are free, imbricate, white in color and obtusely toothed.
  • Corolla is funnel shaped.
  • Ovary is 3 celled, many ovuled with filiform style and blipped stigma

Geographical Distribution:

  • Native to Suthern Asia
  • Tropical regions upto the altitude of 1000-1200 m.
  • India, China, Pakistan, Malaya, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Jamaica.
  • India- Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Assam, Rajasthan, Kumaon, Dehradun and Garhwal

Varieties:

  • 70 species of Curcuma are widely distributed.
  • India is home to about 18 species including C.amada, C. angustifolia, C. aromatica, C. domestica, C. xanthonrhiza, C. caesia, C. zedoaria, and C. longa.
  • Longa is more imp because of its use as spice and condiment, and as an inflammatory and antiseptic drug.
  • Varities cultivated in India
    • Deshi & patani: Assam & Bengal, better color and flavor
    • Erode talukas: Madras, highly valued in market
    • PTS-10, PTS 24, T-Sunder, Kasturi-pushpa, madras-magal, kathadi, Suvarna, Rajatrekha, Phoolbani local, Pratibha and Nooriprabha are also cultivated.

Parts Used: Fresh and dried rhizomes, somtime fresh leaves also

Chemical Constituents: C.longa

  1. Curcuminoids (5%)- yellow coloring substance: Curcumin- 60% of total curcuminoids
  2. Essential oil (6%)- variety of mono and sesquiterpenes like turmerone (30%), ar-turmerone (25%0, zingiberene (25%), α-phellandrene, sabinene etc.
  3. Arabinose (1%)
  4. Frustoce (12%)
  5. Others: Glucose (28%),Starch grains, 1-methyl-4-acetyl-1-cyclohexane, proteins, vitamins, minerals and caprylic acid.

Economic Uses:

  1. Therapeutic Uses: most commonly used as anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antioxidant and remedy for cold & cough in every house. Research has shown its promising use as an anti-cancer drug. Other uses includes diuretic, hemostatic, constipation, blood purification, skin diseases etc.
  2. Cosmetic uses: well known ingredient in face creams, and effective for fair complexion
  3. Edible uses: favourite ingredient as spice for every Indian household, also used as coloring and flavoring agent
  4. Other uses: yellow color for dyeing wool, silk, cotton. Used in Hindu rituals and ceremonies.

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