This injury may be permanent and can leave deep wounds that scar or require transplanted skin to repair the damaged area. Some chemicals can cause irritation by defatting of the skin; for example, commonly used ketones or chlorinated compounds, such as the solvents trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, and gasoline.
A sensitizer causes little or no reaction in man or test animals on first exposure. The problem arises on subsequent exposures when a marked immunological response occurs. The response is not necessarily limited to the contact site as it may be a generalized body condition. Respiratory sensitization and generalized hyperallergy to a few chemicals has also been known to occur.
There is a very high volume of blood flow through the kidney, and the kidney can filter large amounts of toxins that can concentrate in the kidney tubules. The kidney eliminates body wastes, maintains body levels of electrolytes and fluids, and produces special enzymes and hormones that regulate blood pressure, pH, calcium, and the production of red blood cells. Thus, the effects of nephrotoxicity are systemic in nature, such as hypertension, body fluid and electrolyte imbalance, and anemia. The primary forms of nephrotoxicity are nephritis , glomerulonephritis , and acute or chronic renal failure.
It should be noted, however, that slower reactions such as slow decomposition processes may also create serious hazards. Analyses of such reactions should be reviewed by those preparing MSDSs to gain an understanding of how such reactions can occur. The CSB and CCPS reports provide several examples of slow, oxygen-generating chemical reactions that may gradually produce a highly dangerous fuel-oxygen atmosphere, such as in a waste tank. Another example of a slow chemical reaction is with slow, endothelmic polymer decomposition reactions resulting in pressure build-up within enclosed tanks.
Well-known examples of sensitizers are toluene diisocyanate, nickel compounds, and poison ivy. Some of the health hazard definitions provide for an extremely precise testing procedure (e.g. , test species or weight range). This is because those test protocols had been codified in previous government regulations. However, other test methods have been developed and are acceptable for hazard determination. In view of this, Appendix A of the HCS indicates that if there are available scientific data that involve other animal species or test methods, they must also be evaluated to determine their applicability.
The formed elements in the circulating blood are usually not directly affected by toxins. Several toxic agents can bind with the hemoglobin of the red blood cells and interfere with transport of oxygen to body tissues .
Examples of chemicals that bind with hemoglobin and cause hypoxia, by interfering with the oxygen transporting capability of the blood, are carbon monoxide, sodium nitrite, and hydrogen sulfide. Cyanides also cause hypoxia by interfering with the tissue cell’s ability to utilize oxygen allergy symptoms. Examples of nephrotoxins are heavy metals (e.g. , chromium, lead, mercury, and uranium) and halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. , carbon tetrachloride and chloroform). While some toxins cause acute effects, many exert their toxicity by long-term exposure at lower levels. The HCS definition for nephrotoxins is “chemicals which produce kidney damage”.